ANAPHORA IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE COMPLEMENT STRUCTURES
Ph.D. Dissertation, 1986
In this dissertation I explore the syntax and the semantics of overt
and empty categories in Brazilian Portuguese (BP). Data on complementation
plays a large role here since in those constructions the behaviour of
NP's in general, and overt and empty pronomials in particular, offers
us interesting evidence to test the principles of linguistic theories.
In this context, the study of BP is very revealing because, not only is
this language a null subject language, and therefore, allows empty categories
in the subject position of tensed sentences, but it also exhibits a second
very important property, namely, overt lexical NP's can occur in the subject
position of non-tensed sentences. Government and Binding (GB) (Chomsky,
1982a) is the syntactic theory chosen because it derives the distribution
and interpretation of overt and empty categories from the interaction
between the principles of various subtheories within the theory of universal
grammar. But, as they stand, these principles cannot explain some of the
data involving complementation in BP. In particular, they cannot predict
the structures in which control may take place. The problems arise from
the fact that the distribution and interpretation of NP's in the subject
position of embedded clauses in BP cannot be predicted from the type of
clause which those complements, represent, and therefore cannot be derived
from the distribution of the features which constitute their INFL node.
Since the distribution and interpretation of NP's in the subject position
of the complement clauses of BP proves to be dependent on the meaning
of matrix verbs, a semantic analysis for the data is proposed, assuming
the framework offered by the semantic theory known as Situation Semantics
(Barwise & Perry, 1983). The generalization that control relations
are properties associated with the meaning of matrix verbs is captured
through the use of three theoretical notions from Situation Semantics:
constraints, fact-type and parameters.
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